All Projects

3 R’s Drawing and Design Computation

2004 A report on computational sketching software systems to support Recording, Reasoning, and Resolving in design.


2012 A tangible computational drum kit with programmable behaviors.

Ambiguous Intentions

1996 Sketch software acquires information about ambiguity and precision, represents it internally, and echoes it to users visually through constraint driven edit behavior.


2009 Rule-based spatial layouts that define a certain design style.

Architectural Robotics

2012 ACM Interactions article on the inevitable embedding of robotics in built environments.


2012 Internally illuminated modular forms that physically deform in response to changes in ambient sound.


1990 An end-user-programmable object-oriented CAD program with interactive graphical constraints.

Computational Thinking and a Science of Design

2009 This article argues that a computationally expressed science of design is essential for benefiting from revolutions in desktop manufacturing and embedded computing.

Computer Aided Architectural Design

2000, 2008 Three papers on computer aided architectural design.

Concept Design Games

1987 A set of games to teach abstract principles of designing.

Construction Kit Builder

1990 – 1996 A computational design environment for defining, then working with, a system of components and placement rules.

Crafting Mechatronic Percussion

2015 Cardboard mechanical components and a custom printed circuit board to build computational percussive instruments with everyday materials.

Cube Robots

2004, 2009 We describe movement primitives for both orthogonal and convex corner transitions with prismatic cube modules.


2015 A kit to learn fundamental physical computing concepts.

Design Amanuensis

2001 Constructing a machine-readable multimedia document from design speech and sketch actions, which can be replayed and searched.

Design as Exploring Constraints

1984 PhD dissertation: Constraints are an appropriate computable representation for design knowledge.

Design Evaluator

2004 A freehand sketch system with design critiquing.

Design Learning Environments

1999-2009 Six articles reflecting on experience teaching tangible interaction and computational design.

Design Research Summer School

2007 A summer workshop on design research to prepare students to do research about the nature of design or a class of designs.

Design Theory & Method

1984 – 2009 Articles in favor of developing systematic methods of design.

Digital Clay

1998 Sketch recognition software constructs three dimensional digital models from isometric drawings.

Drawing Analogies and Shape-Based Diagram Retrieval

1995… Sketch to retrieve items based on visual similarity.

Drift Room

2006 A slowly ‘drifting’ projection of an aerial scene on a floor with pressure sensors change the image’s drift direction.


2009 A reconfigurable system of thin flat polygon pieces connected by electronically instrumented hinges.

Electronic Cocktail Napkin

1994 … An environment for sketching and diagramming in conceptual design served as a platform for various investigations.

Energy Use Monitor

2004 Two prototype ambient displays that bring energy usage display indoors, break the information into understandable parts, and are easy to read.

Environmental Modeling Language

1994 A modeling environment for exploring landscape dynamics.

Erstwhile Agent

2011 An evolutionary approach to automatically synthesize modular robot constructions to meet desiderata.


2006 A code-based design environment for rapid prototyping with laser cutters or 3D printers.


2001 A simple yet powerful programming language for generating three-dimensional geometry.

Furniture Design Critic

2008-2013 A computational model of design critiquing that considers conditions such as the user’s knowledge and interaction history.

Furniture Factory: A Sketch-based System for Fabrication

2006 A sketch design system helps novices construct physical furniture models using a laser cutter.

Gesture Modeling

2001 Desktop video capture and gesture recognition for three dimensional modeling,

Giffi: Gift For Future Inventors

2012 A computationally enhanced construction kit enables children to build kinetic forms through purposeful play and discovery.


2009 A computationally enhanced construction kit to elucidate fundamentals of graph theory and to provide a platform for experimenting with graphs.

Grids in Design

1991 Grids and placement rules offer a discipline to help a designer lay out complex designs, facilitating group design work.

Hagia Sophia

1999 A Web resource about the famous church/mosque in Istanbul.

Human Hive

2009 Participants to join a “swarm” to construct hive-like structures from cardboard building blocks using pre-defined rulesets.

Hyperforms: Self-Reconfiguring Materials

2011 Design of, and interaction with, programmable matter.

Immersive Redliner

1999 Designers embed annotations and proposed design changes in a three-dimensional design model.

Interactive Fabrication

2011 Interfaces and devices that take real-time input to fabricate physical form.

Junk Mail to Spam Converter

2004 Scan, mail, and shred your junk mail.

Kitsch Instrument

2015 Modular tangible user interface system for creating music with everyday objects.

Light Pen

2003 A lighting design assistant driven by sketching on 3D virtual models.

Modeling Makkah

1998 A modeling strategy for a class of buildings in Makkah leverages common elements, symmetry and repetition, and standard operations.


2003 Simulate pedestrian activities in a virtual urban environment.

MouseHaus Table

2003 A tabletop tangible interface for the MouseHaus pedestrian simulator.

MUD – Multiple-stakeholder Urban Design

1997 An environment for collaborative urban design.

Navigational Blocks

2002 A tangible user interface for information kiosks.


1999 A server-client object oriented draw program for collaborative design, with support for design hisory.

Paper Mechatronics

2015 A novel interdisciplinary design medium enabled by recent advances in craft technologies.

Paper Robots

2010 Small paper interactive objects use shape-memory wire for actuation, gold leaf printed circuits, embedded microchips for control, and paper shells for form and structure.

Pen Computing

1996, 1997 Two papers on mobile pen computing.

People Pretzel

2004 A computationally enhanced game board encourages informal social interaction in public spaces.

Place Based Web for Historic Buildings

1999 A Place-based Web Resource includes panoramic pictures, photographs, interpretive text, and a VR model about a building.


2000 An authoring tool for interactive multimedia documenting a place with panoramic pictures, interpretive text, and a “you-are-here” base map.

Posey & Escape Machine

2008, 2009 A physical construction kit instrumented to capture assembly and configuration information and convey it to a host computer.


2011 An interactive picture frame and display reflects changes in the ambient environment .

Representational Talkback

1999 ART (Amplifying Representational Talkback) investigates types of talkback and representations for writing as design.

roBlocks / Cubelets

2006-2014 A tangible concurrent programming environment encapsulates sensory, kinetic, and computational behavior in modular building blocks that snap together to build robots.

Self-Designing Systems

2009 The roBlocks reconfigurable robot construction kit and Erstwhile Agent, an evolutionary design system.

Sensable Shoes

2009 A hands-free and eyes-free foot-computer interface supports on-the-go interaction with surrounding environments.

Sensors in the Sky

2011 Large, glowing balloons change color based on attached air quality sensors; a DIY kit includes a printed circuit board, electronic parts and instructions for building the air quality balloons.

Shape Emergence

2001 A computer based assistant uses pattern recognition to anticipate human designers’ perception of emergent shapes.

Sketch It, Make It

2012 A sketch design tool for design for laser cutters and 3D printers, now Zotebook.

Sketching in Design

1999 Two studies on architectural design and drawing.

Smart Objects

2001 Design intentions are embedded into objects as constraints and expressed as behaviors.

Software Design

2003 – 2013 Miscellaneous notes on software design.

Space Pen

2001-2004 Annotation and drawing on (and inside) 3D models to exchange text and sketched annotations for review.

Spatial Qualities Descriptor

2008 Descriptor visualizes spatial qualities as a designer diagrams building elements.


1994 A pen-based draw program combines recognition of hand-drawn glyphs with maintenance of spatial relations.

Tangible Interaction = Form + Computing

2010 ACM Interactions magazine cover story on tangible interaction design.

Teletables – bilocative interaction

2008 Ambient tabletop displays connect two places by projecting shadows cast on one surface to the other.

The Posture Suspenders

2011 Suspenders that sense posture in real-time and alert the user via vibration to bad posture.

Thinking with Diagrams in Architectural Design

2001, 2009 A paper on the use of freehand diagrams in architectural design.


2010 An interactive hardboard based embedded circuit construction kit.

Ubiquitous Drums

2010 DIY kit for playing midi-drums on your pants leg.

Virtual Archaeology at Ceren

1997 A virtual archaeology project reconstructed structures and artifacts at the Joya de Ceren excavation site in El Salvador.

Visual Languages and Visual Thinking

2009 Sketch based software should recognize drawing as visual language. Keynote for Eurographics/ACM Symposium on Sketch Based Interaction and Modeling.


2010 Autonomous, wall-crawling robots for public expression on a wide range of surfaces and hard-to- reach places.


1990-1992 Toward a computational model of wayfinding using schemas, or generic expectations, about building layout.

Wear Air

2010 A T-shirt senses and expresses air quality through visually expressive patterns.

Window Seat

2003 Rock and swivel of a chair is an interface for a remote pan and tilt camera.


Embedded sensors and lighting in plywood